11 Foods Proven to Lower Blood Pressure
Hey there. It’s Matt, Senior Nutritionist with Optimal Health & Wellness.
Did you know that high blood pressure affects over 70-million American adults?
Also known as hypertension, high blood pressure is the stealthy, sometimes invisible killer of millions of people in the United States and around the world every year. Often, you won’t feel a thing for years, even decades, while the damage to your cardiovascular system mounts. Finally, one day when blasting through a workout or simply relaxing, it happens—a heart attack or stroke that either ends or forever alters your life.
High blood pressure affects 1 in 3 American adults, and once their blood pressure rises, it’s very hard to bring down. For most people, this involves relaxing and sleeping more, exercising regularly, taking medications daily and (perhaps hardest of all) changing eating habits. The cruel twist? Feeling stressed by all of this will only make things worse.
Normalizing blood pressure is one of the most important things—if not the most important thing—you can do to improve your health and increase your life span. Fortunately, there are alternatives to popping pills: Many foods can lower blood pressure naturally. Rather than cutting things out, science shows that you can really benefit from adding these into your diet.
With that in mind, check out this list of foods that can help lower blood pressure and reduce your risk of heart disease:
Nitrates and nitrites are compounds that play a big part in our metabolic system. The influence they have can be quite confusing, but it’s definitely worth understanding if you’ve got blood-pressure problems.
Many believe nitrates and nitrites are unnatural, although that’s not actually the case. They are commonly added to foods as preservatives, but they are also naturally produced by your body for saliva. Nitrates and nitrites can be converted into two different compounds: nitrosamines (very bad) or nitric oxide (very good).
Nitrosamines are produced when nitrites are exposed to extremely high temperatures. Think frying nitrites in preservative-loaded bacon, or the nitrites in cigarettes. Most of these increase your risk for cancer.
Nitric oxide (NO), on the other hand, acts as a signaling molecule that’s beneficial to health. It gives signals to the cells in your arteries, telling them to soften and relax. This action greatly improves vasodilation, which reduces blood pressure.
For this reason, nitrate-rich foods that are not exposed to very high heat are beneficial because they can become nitric oxide. What most don’t realize is that vegetables are the largest source of nitrates in the human diet.
Beetroot is the best of the bunch, with most research focusing on beetroot juice supplementation. A 2013 review looked at the results of 16 clinical trials on the topic and found that beetroot juice intake reduces blood pressure by 4-10 mmHg in just a few hours. A reduction of at least 5 mmHg in blood pressure reduces your risk of a fatal stroke by 14% and cardiovascular disease by 9%.
Did you know garlic was not historically used for cooking?
For the longest time, garlic’s main use was for health and medicinal purposes. This has been documented by major civilizations such as the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Greeks, Romans and Chinese. The active ingredient in garlic is allicin, a sulphur compound formed when a garlic clove is crushed, chopped or chewed.
Several human studies have shown that supplementing with garlic significantly lowers elevated blood pressure. One study even found garlic was just as effective as prescribed medications after 24 weeks.
Considering that garlic also reduces LDL cholesterol (or, “bad” cholesterol) by 10-15%, adding more garlic to your diet is an absolute necessity, in my opinion. These results have been seen with supplementation of 600-1,200 mgs per day (equal to eating at least two garlic cloves daily).
There is one strong side effect though: garlic breath!
Fish oil refers to the natural fatty acids found in certain fish species. These fatty acids (such as omega-3 fats) are extremely beneficial to human cardiovascular health. Many human trials and reviews have found fish-oil supplementation to be an effective treatment for high blood pressure. However, benefits are only seen in people with existing hypertension.
The mechanism of effect is not clear, but most experts believe it has to do with the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Essentially, having more omega-3 fats in your diet (compared to omega-6 fats) is better for your heart health. A 1:1 ratio is linked with much healthier and stronger blood vessels.
Our ancestors were thought to have an omega-6/omega-3 ratio of between 1:1 and 4:1. However, due to the heavy use of vegetable oils today, the average Western diet has a ratio of 16:1. In other words, for every 16 grams of omega-6 fats consumed, we consume only 1 gram of omega-3.
Improving your ratio even to 4:1 is associated with a 70% decrease in cardiovascular-related death. The best way to do this is by consuming more omega-3 fats such as oily fish, olive oil, walnuts and flaxseed. It also helps to limit other seed/vegetable oils, which tend to be high in omega-6 fats.
Fish-oil supplements are an effective and more affordable alternative to eating oily fish. (Recommended: Dr. Tobias Optimum Omega 3 Fish Oil, found at http://amzn.to/28MEw87.) However, if you have access to fish, 2-3 servings per week should provide heart-healthy benefits.
Cashews and Almonds
Not to be confused with peanuts (which come from the ground), tree nuts are linked with many metabolic health benefits. Almonds and cashews really stand out, particularly when it comes to metabolic problems such as high blood pressure.
What makes them so influential is their rich magnesium content. Magnesium is an essential mineral involved in over 300 bodily process. A lack of magnesium in the diet is strongly associated with blood-pressure complications. Replacing that lack of magnesium has been shown in numerous studies to greatly reduce high blood pressure. Approximately 68% of U.S. adults are magnesium-deficient.
Interestingly, one study on type 2 diabetics only saw reductions in blood pressure once vitamin C and E were added to their magnesium supplementation. If you’re diabetic, this is something to keep in mind if you do decide to use supplements rather than whole foods.
The current recommended daily intake for magnesium in the U.S. is 310-420 mgs. One cup of almonds or cashews provides 360 mgs, which is what I recommend to clients to help maintain optimum levels.
Kale is one of the few “superfoods” that actually earns that moniker. Like spinach, it’s loaded with vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other compounds known to help prevent disease.
However, the reason kale may reduce high blood pressure is because of its unique nutrient profile. It’s rich in magnesium, potassium and vitamin C. A diet high in potassium is strongly linked to lower blood pressure. This could be because magnesium’s effect on blood pressure is enhanced when combined with more potassium. In some cases, this combination can lower blood pressure as much as medications.
Unfortunately, most people no longer consume much potassium. Our hunter-gatherer ancestors consumed around 10,500 mgs of potassium per day, whereas the average American today takes in only 2,800 mgs per day.
I prefer kale over spinach because it has four times more vitamin C! Similar to the potassium-magnesium relationship, vitamin C appears to increase the blood-pressure-lowering effects of magnesium, as well as increase potassium in the blood.
Kale’s nutrient trio of magnesium, potassium and vitamin C makes it unrivalled for blood-pressure control and minimizing disease risk. If you only pick one leafy green vegetable, make it kale.
With refined sugar now recognized as harmful, sweetener alternatives have become incredibly common. Stevia is one of the more popular choices. It’s is one of the few natural sweeteners. It doesn’t jack up your blood sugar and it doesn’t have the same health question marks that dog many artificial sweeteners on the market.
The two active ingredients that make stevia sweet are stevioside and rebaudioside A.
A one-year trial on participants with high blood pressure found that those given 750 mgs of stevioside per day decreased their systolic blood pressure by 8.1% and diastolic blood pressure by 13.8% after three months. Impressively, they were able to maintain this reduction for the next nine months.
Another study using high doses of stevioside (1,500 mgs per day) noted that after two years, blood pressure decreased by 6.5%.
If you’re looking to replace sugar (or you’re already using another type of sweetener), stevia appears to be the best choice for those with elevated blood pressure. It’s by no means a quick fix, but the long-term effects seem to be safe and may even be beneficial.
Turmeric is a popular Indian curry spice. For centuries, Indians used it not only in their cooking but also as a medicinal herb. And they were on to something.
Turmeric’s medicinal properties have only recently been confirmed by science and are very impressive. The main active ingredient in turmeric is curcumin, which has powerful anti-inflammatory effects in the body.
In a study of 32 post-menopausal women, supplementing with 150 mgs of curcumin for 8 weeks successfully improved blood flow to levels seen in those who exercise three times per week. Another human study using 500 mgs of turmeric three times per day reported large decreases in blood pressure in subjects with nephritis (or, inflammation of the kidneys). Those with cardiovascular issues (particularly diabetics) are at high risk for such kidney problems.
The benefits curcumin has on blood flow and blood pressure are believed to be related to nitric oxide, similar to beetroot mentioned above. Supplementation of curcumin has shown to increase circulating nitric oxide by up to 40% in just four weeks. These potential cardiovascular benefits are too great to ignore, especially if you are at high risk of complications.
There is just one problem with curcumin: Humans are very bad at absorbing it. For any noticeable health benefits, it’s essential to consume curcumin with an enhancer such as black pepper. Black pepper contains piperine, an alkaloid that boosts curcumin absorption by a whopping 2,000%.
Add plenty of pepper to your turmeric-based curry. Or if you decide to supplement, eat some whole peppercorns at the same time.
Traditionally from China, green tea is loaded with an array of powerful compounds and antioxidants unrivalled by any other food.
The reason that green tea (and tea in general) is so beneficial is because of its polyphenols. One particular green tea polyphenol known as catechin has shown to improve blood flow and blood pressure. Like beetroot and curcumin, the mechanism is thought to involve nitric oxide.
A large review of green tea confirmed that 2 cups per day (500 milliliters) can increase arterial diameter by up to 40%. Just as wider pipes will increase water flow, wider and more relaxed blood vessels increase blood flow, reducing pressure. It’s no real surprise then that regular green tea drinkers have up to a 31% lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, consuming too many saturated and trans fats increases your LDL cholesterol (or, “bad” cholesterol). High LDL levels may worsen your hypertension, and may eventually lead to coronary heart disease.
Coffee beans are naturally green, but roasting turns them brown. So green coffee is just another name for unroasted coffee.
While roasted coffee beans have a similar chemical composition to green coffee beans, the roasting process destroys much of its chlorogenic acid. This is the active ingredient that gives green coffee beans additional health properties, including blood-pressure reduction.
One 12-week study using 480 mgs of green coffee extract (equal to 140 mgs of chlorogenic acid) found it reduced heart rate and blood pressure by about 8%. These benefits were maintained for 12 weeks of supplementation, but only in those who began with high blood pressure. What’s more, benefits were lost once supplementation stopped.
Theoretically, drinking more green coffee should have much of the same benefits as supplementing, but it depends on the chlorogenic acid concentration. Doses used in these studies were equivalent to 120-300 mgs chlorogenic acid.
Try swapping your regular coffee for green coffee and then checking for any blood pressure changes after a month.
For decades, we’ve been told to cut all fats from our diets. Unfortunately, these recommendations were based on bad science.
In looking at fat intake and blood pressure specifically, full-fat dairy may be beneficial as it contains vitamin K2, which helps regulate where calcium ends up in the body. It works to keep calcium in your bones and removes it from blood vessels where it can cause arterial stiffness and calcification.
While no studies yet exist that measure the direct effect of K2 on blood pressure, it makes sense that K2 would be beneficial given its relationship with vascular health.
A soon-to-be published observational study (one of Europe’s biggest) found that those who eat 8 portions of high-fat dairy per day are 23% less likely to get type 2 diabetes than those eating 1 portion per day. Blood pressure is a key predictor of vascular diseases such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
Full-fat, grass-fed dairy products are by far the best sources of vitamin K2. This includes butter, cheese, full-fat yogurt and ghee (a class of clarified butter). Liver and other organs are good sources too, as are fermented foods such as sauerkraut, natto and miso (both traditional Japanese foods). If those food sources are not an option for you, supplementation is a valid alternative, and should be taken alongside vitamin D for maximum effect.
In my opinion, we should all be increasing our vitamin K2 intake as a preventative measure for heart health. This is especially true if you are particularly vulnerable to artery calcification from having diabetes or a family history of high cholesterol and blood pressure.
Extra-Virgin Olive Oil
Olive oil is probably the healthiest oil in the world. It’s a staple of Mediterranean-style diets and is rich in heart-healthy monounsaturated fats and phenolic antioxidants. Extra-virgin olive oil has the highest levels of beneficial components because it is the least processed form of olive oil.
The cardiovascular benefits of olive oil are certainly no secret, with one major study finding that it reduced heart attacks, strokes and death by a whopping 30%.
It’s no surprise then that olive oil is a fantastic food for lowering blood pressure.
In a study of 23 participants with high blood pressure, extra-virgin olive oil reduced blood pressure by 48% compared with sunflower oil. Olive oil intake even cut the need for blood pressure medications in 8 of those participants.
Your Diet Is Just the Beginning
Of course, many other factors influence blood pressure. These include physical activity, adequate sleep, sun exposure, meditation and other stress-management practices. In the end, however, the majority of these link back to diet. What goes into your mouth is certainly the most influential factor at play.
There are so many natural foods that may help lower your blood pressure—especially if you’re struggling to manage it without pharmaceutical drugs. It’s just a matter of trying them out for yourself.
Speaking of natural treatments for high blood pressure, did you know that there’s a new all-natural way to reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure that takes only seconds a day?
In fact, this simple, all-natural and affordable treatment has been clinically proven to help reduce blood-pressure levels, improve blood circulation, lower bad cholesterol and balance blood sugar levels while also delivering a jolt of antioxidants to your cells to promote improved overall health.
Would you like to learn how you can reduce your blood pressure to healthy levels quickly, safely and affordably?
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Wishing you good health through wise nutrition,
Hello. This is Dr. Ben, Chief Medical Advisor here at Optimal Health Products, pointing out something important that you may not realize about the toxins in your body.
Most people believe that having a healthy heart is either a matter of good genetics ("he’s just lucky") or a strict diet ("I just have to give up salt").
The truth is, genetics and food choices are NOT the root cause of your struggle to rid your body of the risk of heart disease and a potential heart attack or stroke, no matter how hard you try. Your high blood pressure, bad cholesterol and high blood sugar have little to do with bad genes or ANY of the most common things believed to cause heart disease.
Your struggle to protect and even heal your heart comes down to 3 little-known factors that your doctor might not even know about!
In the next few minutes, I'm going to show you how a weird herb has been shown to STOP these 3 little-known problems dead in their tracks so your blood pressure stabilizes, your cholesterol and blood-sugar levels improve and you get the heart-health results you want while no longer worrying about heart attack or stroke.
But before I do, however, it’s extremely important to understand the three critical things that must take place to STOP the potential of heart disease, including the possibility of a heart attack or stroke:
Sugar is necessary for survival. Blood sugar (or, blood glucose) refers to sugar that’s introduced into the bloodstream to supply needed energy to all the cells in the body. Our bodies are made to regulate those levels, making sure they’re neither too high nor too low.
Unfortunately, sugar is made from the food we eat. Our digestive system breaks down carbs from food and sends them straight to our bloodstream as glucose, a simple sugar that converts to energy. However, glucose can only enter the cells via insulin.
Unbalanced insulin levels result in either type 1 diabetes (also known as insulin sensitivity, or too low levels) or type 2 diabetes (too high levels).
This means, the higher your insulin levels, the higher your chance of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), a disease that literally damages the structure and function of your heart.
Insulin doesn’t care whether your blood sugar is at a healthy level. Its only concern is that you do not starve and have the ability to produce energy for your body to burn.
The big, ugly problem: Unless you do something to “short-circuit” this biological need to feed your cells, you’ll never have the heart health you want and deserve.
It begins with maintaining your insulin levels, because modern living—along with diets full of refined sugars and other challenges—have made it so most of us are nearly insulin-unbalanced all the time. This not only makes eating right nearly impossible, it also makes choosing when and how often to eat MUCH harder.
Think about the last time you were ravenously hungry? You began to feel weak and dizzy, right? You began to feel yourself shutting down—and that’s exactly what insulin issues can do.
Whether you’ve heard of “bad” cholesterol (LDL) or “good” cholesterol (HDL), I assure you. They’re having a MASSIVE effect on the health of your blood.
LDL cholesterol is considered bad because it creates plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog arteries, making them less flexible. (This is known as atherosclerosis.) Eventually, a clot can form, blocking a narrowed artery, often resulting in heart attack or stroke. Another condition called peripheral artery disease can develop when plaque buildup and narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to the limbs (usually the legs). Either scenario often results in death or life-altering consequences.
HDL cholesterol is considered good because it aids in removing LDL cholesterol from the arteries. Scientists believe HDL acts as a scavenger, carrying LDL cholesterol away from the arteries and safely back to the liver, where it’s broken down and passed from the body.
A healthy level of HDL cholesterol will protect against heart attack and stroke, while low levels of HDL cholesterol have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease.
Without properly balanced cholesterol and blood-sugar levels, your heart valves become restricted with plaque buildup, and that leads to a damaged and unhealthy heart. All this combined begins to affect other parts of your body and internal organs because they are starved of needed oxygen and blood that is pumped to them by your heart. After years of unhealthy eating, unbalanced cholesterol and blood-sugar levels all over the place, your overall heart health begins to deteriorate. In worse cases, not protecting your heart health can lead to major damage resulting in the need for heart surgery or a heart transplant. In the worst case, deteriorated hearth health can lead to death.
And it gets worse with each passing year, not only making it harder to avoid heart disease but actually causing you to GET A HEART ATTACK OR STROKE—no matter how hard you try to avoid it.
Your stress levels increase. The number you see on the blood-pressure monitor goes up and perhaps worst of all, you begin to live your life in complete fear and feel like your heart is a bomb waiting to go off.
This vicious cycle not only accelerates with each passing year, it begins to compromise other parts of your health. Your sleep quality drops. Your stress begins to affect those around you. You stay away from strenuous activities including all exercise, and those things accelerate the cycle yet again.
Each time, the cycle speeds up, which is why heart disease is often so accelerated later in life.
This is pretty disheartening for anyone looking to maintain healthy blood levels and transform their heart health.
What if you could balance your blood sugar, lower your bad cholesterol, maintain good cholesterol, naturally control your blood pressure and get rid of the fear of a heart attack or stroke?
If you could do that, you could essentially turn your heart into a well-run machine, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Can you just imagine how much more safe you’d feel if these 3 hidden dangers of heart disease were no longer standing in the way of a healthy heart?
Well, there is a way to fix these dangers, get your blood pressure under control, maintain healthy cholesterol levels and balance your blood-sugar levels.
The solution not only works on a deeper cellular level but also in your overall well-being. So the results are rapidly felt, deep and long-term.
The solution you’re about to discover only takes one minute or less to implement. So there’s absolutely NO REASON why you have to be a victim of heart disease that so many needlessly suffer through.
Introducing our 100% all-natural proprietary blend called StrictionBP. This unique but extremely effective supplement has been scientifically created to safely protect your heart from damage.
StrictionBP uses a “magical” little extract called Ceylon Cinnamon from an amazing herb that grows selectively in Sri Lanka.
Randomized-controlled research published on type 2 diabetes demonstrated the significant effect Ceylon Cinnamon can have regarding blood-sugar levels.
These results were pooled together with results from a recent study and published in the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
These results were not accomplished by every brand of the supplement, but rather only quality-sourced Ceylon Cinnamon.
After 4 weeks of supplementing with 120 mg of quality-sourced Ceylon Cinnamon per day, test subjects (543 patients) saw significantly reduced levels of fasting plasma glucose (blood sugar) from -40.52 to -8.67, and an increase of good cholesterol (HDL) from 1.09 to 2.24 while decreasing the bad cholesterol (LDL) from 17.21 to -1.63.
The effects of Ceylon Cinnamon extract work 5 different ways:
By naturally balancing your blood sugar, cholesterol levels and blood pressure, you’re unlikely to ever develop conditions like insulin resistance, diabetes and heart disease.
You optimize your heart health, protect it from heart disease and you can lose the fear of a catastrophic heart attack or stroke!
Now, what if you could get all of these proven heart-health benefits in the form of an easy-to-take daily capsule that protects your heart without you having to change your diet, spend hours at a gym or giving up any of your favorite activities?
Now, you could learn about these powerful ingredients and then try to independently source the individual ingredients. The problem is, after you’ve found all the products and sources, purchased minimum quantities of each (which is often a large amount), paid shipping on each, and sorted through a huge stage of studies on the most effective dose of each one needed to help balance your blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar, you’ll literally have spent weeks or months of time, and hundreds (if not thousands!) of dollars—and you’ll have waited all that time to even begin to make progress.
These critical ingredients, along with some additional compounds that further enhance their overall effectiveness, have been combined into one proven, all-natural, scientifically researched, easy-to-take supplement called StrictionBP, and it’s by far one of the most exciting, unique formulas I’ve ever had the opportunity to work on.
Just take it once each morning and again each night. You just let this incredible supplement work its magic!
As the research overviewed has shown, this nutrient already has a rapid and noticeable effect on your blood pressure, cholesterol levels and blood sugar. Yet when you combine them all, the results are truly unsurpassed.
StrictionBP is the ONLY way to get this clinically proven ingredient to help STOP the deadly accumulation of plaque and balance your blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure, and win the war against heart disease once and for all.
Deciding to take StrictionBP is a simple decision because we want you to not just take our word on its effectiveness but take it for a test drive!
In addition, we are offering you a No-Risk 100% Satisfaction Guarantee. You must SEE RESULTS—or return it for a refund. No hassles. No questions asked.
That’s how you know StrictionBP will deliver everything it promises and more.
With no risk and a proven track record of creating better heart health, is there any reason not to give this a try?
Once you have it in your hands, and once you experience the rare power of this wonder supplement to fight back against heart disease and give you the peace of mind you’ve always wanted, you'll be thankful you tried this. After all, this is so much easier and more affordable and less invasive than other solutions—especially expensive blood-pressure and cholesterol drugs, which often come with harmful side effects and make you feel ill and miserable.
You’ll also receive a powerful FREE eBook—3 Ways to Naturally Lower Your Blood Pressure—which will walk you through the biggest problem with traditional heart health approaches (including so much of what you learned here today).
This is normally a $29.95 value, but you get the eBook for FREE when you try out StrictionBP today!
To finally see and experience how unbelievably easy it can be to balance your blood sugar and cholesterol, and protect your heart, choose the appropriate savings with the link below…
…and then, of course, be sure to write down your blood-pressure reading today, because you’ll absolutely want to document your dramatic before-and-after results.
Dedicated to helping you achieve Optimal Health & Wellness!
Chief Medical Advisor
Optimal Health Products Inc.
1. Mayo Clinic staff; Diseases and Conditions, Type 1 diabetes, Definition; The Mayo Clinic; 2014: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/basics/definition/con-20019573
2. No authors listed; “What Is Diabetic Heart Disease?”; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2011: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dhd
3. No authors listed; “What Is Atherosclerosis?”; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2015: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis
4. No authors listed; “What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?”; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2015: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pad
5. Mayo Clinic staff; “HDL cholesterol: How to boost your ‘good’ cholesterol”; Mayo Clinic; 2012: http://www.mayoclinic.org/hdl-cholesterol/art-20046388
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8. Allen, R., Schwartzman, E., et al.; “Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis”; The Annals of Family Medicine; 2013: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24019277
9. Leech, J.; “10 Evidence-Based Health Benefits of Cinnamon”; Authority Nutrition; 2016: https://authoritynutrition.com/10-proven-benefits-of-cinnamon
10. No authors listed; “Antioxidant capacity of 26 spice extracts and characterization of their phenolic constituents”; Journal of Agricultural http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16190627
11. No authors listed; “Vitamins and Supplements Lifestyle Guide”; WebMD; 2014: http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-and-supplements/lifestyle-guide-11/supplement-guide-cinnamon
12. Azimi, P., Ghiasvand, R., et al.; “Effects of Cinnamon, Cardamom, Saffron, and Ginger Consumption on Markers of Glycemic Control, Lipid Profile, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients”; The Review of Diabetic Studies; 2014: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26177486
13. Plaisier, C., Cok, A., et al.; “Effects of cinnamaldehyde on the glucose transport activity of GLUT1”; Biochimie; 2011: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3019305
14. No authors listed; “Side Effects of High Blood Pressure Medications”; WebMD; 2016: http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/guide/side-effects-high-blood-pressure-medications